بررسی میزان خسارت جوندگان و پرندگان به میوه گردو و عوامل موثر بر آن در استان کرمان

نوع مقاله: جانور شناسی کشاورزی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات جانورشناسی کشاورزی، موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

2 مربی، بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان، کرمان

3 کارشناس ارشد، مرکز تحقیقات زیست محیطی استان کرمان، کرمان

چکیده

استان کرمان دارای بیشترین سطح زیر کشت درختان گردو در ایران است. در تابستان 1393، در باغات گردوی استان کرمان، تعداد 422 نمونه گردوی خسارت دیده جمع‌آوری شد که از این تعداد 248 مورد (8/58%) مربوط به خسارت جوندگان، 70 مورد (6/16%) مربوط به خسارت پرندگان و 104 مورد (6/24%) دارای ترکیبی از علایم خسارت جوندگان و پرندگان بودند. در تابستان 1394 از باغاتی که قبلا دارای مهره‌داران خسارت‌زا بودند، پنج باغ و 27 درخت به طور تصادفی انتخاب و در چهار تاریخ نمونه‌های خسارت دیده جمع‌آوری شد. میزان خسارت در این باغ‌ها بین 5/10% و 2/96% و میانگین میزان خسارت در کل باغ‌ها 5/34% بود. آنالیز واریانس نشان از وجود اختلاف معنی‌دار میان باغ‌ها داشت (p<0.05). میانگین ارتفاع درختان به طور متوسط 2/9 متر و قطر میانگین آن‌ها 2/35 سانتی‌‌متر و میانگین ضخامت پوسته میوه گردو 43/1 میلی‌متر بود. میانگین فاصله درختان از رودخانه یا نهر 9/41 متر، از منازل 7/421 متر و از جاده 0/449 متر بود. نتایج آزمون همبستگی میزان خسارت با فاکتورهای مورد بررسی نشان داد که درصد خسارت با ارتفاع درختان گردو، قطر تنه درختان، فاصله از منازل و جاده معنی‌دار (p<0.05) اما کلفتی پوست میوه گردو و فاصله از رودخانه با میزان خسارت ارتباط معنی‌داری نداشتند (p>0.05).

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey of damage rate of rodents and birds on walnut damage and its effective variables in Kerman province

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. KHALEGHIZADEH 1
  • M. NASERI 2
  • M. E. SEHHATISABET 3
1 Researcher
چکیده [English]

Kerman province has the highest area under walnut cultivation in Iran. In summer 2014, 422 specimens were collected in walnut orchards of Kerman province, of which 248 specimens (58.8%) were attributed to rodents, 70 (16.6%) were attributed to birds and the remaining 104 specimens (24.6%) were attributed to both rodents and birds. In summer 2015, in those orchards that previously experienced vertebrate damage, five orchards and 27 trees were randomly selected and walnut fruit specimens with signs of rodent and bird damage were collected in four different dates. The damage rate was between 10.5% and 96.2%, giving the average damage rate 34.5%. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference of the damage rate among the selected orchards (p<0.05). The height of walnut trees measured 9.2 m, the diameter of trees 35.2 cm and the thickness of fruit 1.43 mm. The distance of trees from the nearest river or stream was measured 41.9 m, from buildings 421.7 m and from roads 449 m. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the damage rate had significant correlation with the height of and the diameter of walnut trees, the distance from buildings and roads (p<0.05) but it was not found a significant correlation with the thickness of fruits and the distance from rivers or streams (p>0.05).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vertebrates
  • Forest Dormouse
  • Woodpeckers
  • Damage
  • walnut
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