کاربرد توام دوگونه از Trichoderma و Bacillus subtilis در کنترل نماتد ریشه گرهی گوجه فرنگی (Meloidogyne javanica)

نوع مقاله: مدیریت آفات و بیماری‌های گیاهی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

در تحقیق حاضر، کاربرد همزمان دو گونه Trichoderma harzianum و T. virens به همراه دو جدایه از باکتری Bacillus subtilis، در کاهش شاخص های بیماریزایی نماتد Meloidogyne javanica و بهبود فاکتورهای رشدی گیاه گوجه فرنگی ارزیابی گردید. آزمون سنجش زیستی، کاربرد عصاره کشت گونه های قارچی و سوسپانسیون جدایه های باکتریایی را به صورت تکی و تلفیقی بر تفریخ تخم و مرگ و میر لارو نماتد بررسی نمود. در تیمار ترکیبی T. virens (جدایه T65) و B. subtilis (جدایه MD) مرگ و میر لارو سن دوم و عدم تفریخ تخم نماتد به ترتیب به میزان 5 و 5/1 برابر نسبت به شاهد در شرایط آزمایشگاه افزایش یافت. همچنین ریشه های آلوده گوجه فرنگی رقم ارلی اوربانا در مرحله 4-5 برگی با ترکیب جدایه های ذکر شده، در شرایط گلخانه تیمار گردیدند که نتایج حاکی از کاهش 68، 5/57 و 3/38 درصدی به ترتیب در تعداد گال، تخم و لارو سن دوم نسبت به شاهد دارد. ارزیابی بهبود فاکتورهای رشدی گوجه فرنگی در شرایط گلخانه دلالت بر این دارد که جدایه باکتریایی MD، پتانسیل افزایش 34 و 110 درصدی را به ترتیب در طول ساقه و ریشه گوجه فرنگی در مقایسه با شاهد سالم دارا می باشد. به نظر می رسد جدایه MD باکتری B. subtilis ، گزینه مناسبی جهت بررسی های بیشتر در زمینه تولید هورمون های گیاهی و احتمال القاء مقاومت در گیاه باشد. همچنین برآورد کارایی تیمار تلفیقی T.65+MD در کاهش شاخص های بیماریزایی نماتد ریشه گرهی در شرایط طبیعی پیشنهاد می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simultaneous application of two species of Trichoderma and Bacillus subtilis to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on tomato

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. BADAKHSHAN 1
  • E. MAHDIKHANI-MOGHADDAM 2
  • S. BAGHAEE-RAVARI 2
  • H. ROUHANI 3
چکیده [English]

In the current research, simultaneous application of Trichoderma harzianum (T.BI) and T. virens (T.65) species with two strains of Bacillus subtilis (MD, Bs) were evaluated on reduction of Meloidogyne javanica pathogenicity indexes and improvement of tomato growth factors in a bioassay trial fungal culture extract and bacterial suspension were tested on mortality of second stage juveniles and egg hatching individually and simultaneously. Application of T65 (T. virens) and MD (B. subtilis) caused 5 and 1.5 times enhancement in juvenile mortality and egg hatching inhibition of M. javanica in comparison to control in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, roots of tomato seedlings with 4-5 leaves were treated by mentioned combination in greenhouse. Comparing to control treatment of T65+ MD lead to reduction of gall, egg and second stage juvenile numbers by 68, 57.5 and 38.3 % respectively. According to our results, efficiency assessment of T.65+MD treatment on reduction of pathogenicity indexes in root knot nematode is recommended under natural condition. Evaluation of tomato growth factors improvement in pot experiments revealed that MD bacterial strain, has potential of increasing tomato shoot and root length by 34 and 110 % respectively in comparison to healthy control. Therefore, it seems that MD strain is suitable candidate for further research in the fields of plant hormones production and possible induction of resistance in plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bacillus
  • biological control
  • Trichoderma
  • Root knot nematode
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