واکنش ارقام و لاین‌های پیشرفته گندم نسبت به بیماری پوسیدگی طوقه و ریشه ناشی از گونه‌های Fusarium culmorum وF. pseudograminearum در شرایط مزرعه و گلخانه

نوع مقاله: بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهش؛ موسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

2 استادیار ‌پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه

3 کارشناس؛ موسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر به دلیل کشت مداوم گندم، پوسیدگی‌های طوقهوریشه اهمیت خاصی پیدا نموده و سبب خسارت قابل توجهی شده است.برای مدیریت این بیماری‌ها استفاده از ارقام مقاوم یا متحمل مناسب‌ترین روش می‌باشد. این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی میزان مقاومت 70 رقم و لاین پیشرفته‌ی گندم نان و دوروم نسبت به مخلوط پنج جدایه از قارچ Fusarium culmorum  تحت شرایط مزرعه‌ای در دو منطقه کرج و کرمانشاه انجام شد. همچنین واکنش این ارقام و لاین‌های پیشرفته در مرحله گیاهچه‌ای نسبت به جدایه های F. culmorum و F. pseudograminearum بطور جداگانه تحت شرایط گلخانه‌ای بررسی شد. آزمایشات مزرعه‌ای بر اساس طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار و آزمایشات گلخانه‌ای با 5 تکرار انجام شد. طی آزمایشات دو ساله در کرج ارقام و لاین‌هایC-85D-9 ،S-84-14 ،N-85-5 ،CROC-1/AE.SQARROSA (224)//OPATA، SONMEZ، M-85-7،BURBOT-6 ، C-87- 18 و TURCAN#3 از مقاومت خوبی برخوردار بودند. ارقام و لاین‌های 2-49، SUNR23 (GALA) 2-49/(CN#133/SUNSTATE*4)//SUNSTATE)، CHIRYA.3، BURBOT-6،WS-85-10 ، C-87-11 و C-87-18نیز در کرمانشاه دارای مقاومت بسیار خوبی به پوسیدگی طوقه و ریشه گندم بودند. رقم BURBOT-6 از سیمیت و لاین پیشرفته‌یC-87-18  از موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر در هر دو منطقه مذکور از مقاومت بسیار خوبی بر خوردار بودند و حتی از ارقام مقاومی نظیر 2-49 و Sunco که در دنیا معرفی شده‌اند مقاومت بیشتری داشتند. این ارقام برای استفاده‌ی مستقیم در مناطق آلوده و یا استفاده در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی تولید ارقام مقاوم به پوسیدگی های طوقه و ریشه معرفی می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reaction of wheat cultivars and advanced lines to Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum under field and greenhouse conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. RAZAVI 1
  • D. SAFAEI 2
  • M. MAHDAVIi 3
2 Scientific member of Kermanshah Agriculture Research Center
3 Expert, Department of Plant Pathology, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
چکیده [English]

In recent years, due to monoculture of wheat, crown and root rot diseases have become more prevalent and important in Iran. These diseases are caused by Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum.Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient method to control these diseases. This research was conducted to evaluate resistance level of 70 cultivars/advanced lines of bread wheat and durum wheat obtained from CIMMYT, SPII and DARI, to a mixture of five F. culmorum isolates in Karaj and Kermanshah locations in field conditions. These experiments were conducted based on RCBD with four replications. In addition, the reactions of these genotypes were evaluated against F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum at the seedling stage in greenhouse conditions based on RCBD with 5 replications. The results of two years field experiments in Karaj showed that cultivars/lines: C-85D-9, S84-14, N85-5, Croc- Sonmez, 1/AE, Aquarosa (224)//Opata, M-85-7, Burbot-6, C- 87-18 and Turcan#3 had good level of resistance. The results of two years field experiments in Kermanshah showed that cultivars/lines: 2-49, Gala, Chiry A.3, Burbot-6, WS-85-10, C-87-11 and C-87-18 had good level of resistance to F.culmorum. The cultivar Burbot-6 from CIMMYT and advanced line C-87-18 from SPII had a very good level of resistance to both fungal species in field and greenhouse conditions in both locations. These genotypes have potential to be used directly by farmers in the infected areas of Iran or incorporated to the breeding programs at the national or international level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crwon rot
  • Fusarium culmorum
  • root rot
  • resistance
  • Wheat
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