اهمیّت نسبی و پراکنش اقلیمی قارچ‌های بیماری‌زای ریشه و طوقه لوبیا در مزارع استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی

نویسندگان

1 هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی لرستان

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

4 بخش تحقیقات بیولوژی خاک، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقه لوبیا یکی از بیماری‌های مهم و اقتصادی این محصول در جهان است. پراکنش و غالبیت نسبی عوامل قارچی پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقه لوبیا در مناطق و اقلیم‌های لوبیاکاری استان لرستان از جمله مزارع شهرستان‌های ازنا، الیگودرز، سلسله، دورود و بروجرد ارزیابی گردید. از نمونه‌برداری‌ها جمعاً تعداد 1164 جدایه با استفاده از محیط کشت عمومی و انتخابی، جداسازی و بیماریزایی گونه‌های عمده روی رقم اختر ارزیابی و اثبات گردید. شناسایی بیمارگرهای غالب براساس ریخت شناسی پرگنه و ویژگی‌های میکروسکوپی انجام و با استفاده از ژن‌های β-tubulin و αTEF1- مورد تایید ملکولی قرار گرفت. فراوانی جدایه‌های قارچی و آزمایش بیماریزایی عوامل قارچی نشان داد که F. solani، با 42/33 درصد ، مهمترین عامل پوسیدگی ریشه لوبیا در استان و پس از آن، F. oxysporum، Macrophomina phaseolina و Rhizoctonia solani به ترتیب 55/26 ، 55/15 و 73/7 درصد از جدایه‌ها را به خود اختصاص دادند. فراوانی جدایه‌های قارچی در شهرستان‌های سلسله، بروجرد، ازنا ، دورود و الیگودرز به‌ترتیب 57/24، 64/18، 58/16، 20/15 و 25/8 درصد بود. فراوانی جدایه‎های قارچی بدست آمده در مراحل رشد اولیه، گل‌دهی و غلاف‌دهی میزبان لوبیا به‎ترتیب 70/20، 37/26 و 92/52 درصد بود. براساس انطباق اقلیمی مناطق نمونه‌برداری ، بیشترین فراوانی عوامل قارچی در اقلیم نیمه مرطوب معتدل ارزیابی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Importance and climatic distribution of pathogenic fungi associated with bean root and crown in Lorestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Naser Panjehkeh 2
  • Mostafa Darvishnia 3
  • mohammad salari 2
  • Hadi Asadi Rahmani 4
2 Plant Pretection Department, Agricultural college, Zabol Universty, Zabol, Iran
3 Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and education Center,Khorramabad, Iran
4 Soil and Water Research Institute
چکیده [English]

Common bean root rot which is a fungal disease is an economically important diseases of the crop product worldwide. Distribution and relative dominance of the disease was investigated in the farms of the major bean cultivating regions and clima of Lorestan province including Azna, Aligudarz, Selseleh, Doroud and Borujerd. Totally, 1164 isolates were obtained using general and selective culture. Pathogenicity of isolates evaluated and confirmed on Akhtar cultivar. The dominant pathogenic fungi were identified based on colony morphology and microscopic characteristics, and then confirmed by molecular technique using β-tubulin and TEF1- αgenes. Frequency of fungal isolate and the pathogenicity tests showed that F. solani, with 33.42 % isolation frequency was the most important causal agent of common bean root and crown rot in Lorestan province, and followed by F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani with 26.55, 15.55 and 7.73 %, respectively. Frequency of roor rot pathogens distributed across bean farms of Selseleh, Borujerd, Azna, , Doroud and Aligudarz were 24.57, 18.64, 16.58, 15.20 and 8.25 %. respectively. The frequency of the pathogen isolated from common bean plants at the early growth, flowering and podding stages was 20.70, 26.37 and 52.92 %, respectively. Based on Climate zoning, the highest frequency of fungal agents was evaluated in semi-humid temperate clima.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Root and crown rot"
  • "common bean"
  • "Climatic distribution"
  • "Lorestan"

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