بررسی پراکنش سپتوریوز برگی گندم و ارزیابی مقاومت ارقام نسبت به آن در استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: مدیریت آفات و بیماری‌های گیاهی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس بخش علوم کشاورزی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ایلام

2 دانشیار بخش گیاه پزشکی دانشکده تولید گیاهی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار گروه بیماری شناسی گیاهی علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 گروه بیوتکنولوژی و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

5 Professor, Department of Fundamental Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

چکیده

در این تحقیق میزان پراکنش و ارتباط فیزیولوژی عامل بیماری با محل­های حضور آن و ارزیابی ارقام مقاوم بررسی و عامل بیماری
Zymoseptoria tritici شناسایی گردید. نقشه پراکنش بیماری با استفاده از نرم­افزار ArcGIS 10.2 تهیه شد. 26 رقم زراعی در گلخانه ارزیابی گردید. براساس نتایج، جدایه نوکنده بیشترین و جدایه رامیان دارای کمترین میزان رشد و جدایه­ها در دمای 15 درجه‌ سلسیوس بیشترین و در دمای 10 درجه سلسیوس کمترین رشد را داشتند. بیماری در 8 شهرستان ردیابی و شهرستان­های رامیان و کردکوی به ­عنوان کانون بیماری مشخص گردیدند. از ارقام بررسی ‌شده 4 رقم فلات، مهرگان، قابوس و روشن مقاوم، 14 رقم شیرودی، مروارید، مغان، کوهدشت، گاسپار، آفتاب، شهریار، گنبد، الموت، افلاک، زرین، کرج-1، توس و آذر-2 نیمه مقاوم و 7 رقم کریم، دز، خزر-1، استار، هامون، افق، ارم و تجن حساس ارزیابی شدند. جدایه رامیان دارای بیشترین شدت بیماری‌زایی بود. با توجه­ به پراکنش وسیع، شرایط مساعد و مشخص شدن کانون‌های بیماری، می‌توان با پایش به‌موقع بیماری، نسبت به انجام اقدامات پیش آگاهی و کنترلی اطلاع ‌رسانی نمود. همچنین با ارزیابی متناوب ژنوتیپ‌های گندم، نسبت به معرفی ارقام مقاوم و کاهش بیماری در آینده اقدام نمود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the mode distribution of Septoria leaf blotch and evaluating the resistance of wheat cultivars in Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Ashrafi 1
  • kamran rahnama 2
  • Valiollah Babaeizad 3
  • Seyedeh Sanaz Ramezanpoor 4
  • ‍Cristoff KEEL 5
1 Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
2 Associate professors of plant protection department faculty of plant production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Associate prof, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Mazandaran,Sari, Iran.
4 Faculty of plant production,Gorgan University of Agricultrul Sceince and Natural Resources, Gogan, Iran
چکیده [English]

S
In this research, examination of the disease distribution, the physiological relationship between disease agents and its sites and evaluation of cultivars resistance were investigated. The disease agent identified as Zymoseptoria tritici. Distribution map prepared by ArcGIS v.10.2 software. The isolates growth tested in different temperature and its relation to their region climatic conditions evaluated. 26 cultivars evaluated in the greenhouse, evaluated. As a result, isolate growth average had correlation with region climatic conditions. In terms of growth, the Nokandeh isolate was the most and the Ramian isolate was lowest. The highest isolates growth was at 15°C and the lowest growth rates were at 10°C. The disease was detected in 8 counties. Ramian and Kurdkoy were identified as the disease contaminated sites. Among the examined cultivars, 4 cultivars such as Falat, Mehrgan, Ghabos, and Roshan were resistant, 14 cultivars such as Shirodi, Morvarid, Moghan, Koohdasht, Gaspar, Aftab, Shahryar, Gonbad, Alamoot, Aflak, Zarin, Karaj-1, Tous, and Azar-2 were moderately resistant and 7 cultivars such as Karim, Dez, Khazar-1, Star, Hamoon, Ofogh, Eram and Tajan were evaluated as susceptible. Rumian isolate had the highest disease severity. Due to the wide distribution of STB, the existence of favorable conditions and identification of disease region center, it is possible to monitor the appearance of infection at February and March and make abroadcast of the disease prevalence. Also, by evaluating of wheat genotypes, introducing and planting the resistant cultivars, it could reduce the disease in the future.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivars reactions
  • disease severity
  • ITS rDNA
  • Pycnidium coverage

 

Brading, P. A. Verstappen E. C. P. Kema, G. H. J. and Brown, J. K. M. 2002. A gene-for-gene relationship between wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch pathogen. Phytopathology,92: 439-445.

Brown, J. K. M. Chartrain, L. Lasserre­Zuber, P. and Saintenac, C. 2015. Genetics of resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and applications to wheat breeding. Fungal Genet Biol 79: 33–41.

Chartrain, L. Brading, P. A. Makepeace, J. C. and Brown, J. K. M, 2004. Sources of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch and implications for wheat breeding. Plant Pathology, 53: 454 – 460.

Croll, D. Lendenmann, M. H. Stewart, E. and McDonald, B. A. 2015. The impact of recombination hotspots on genome evolution of a fungal plant pathogen. Genetics, 201: 1213–1228.

Dadrezaie, S. T. and Eslahi, R. 2004. Evaluation of resistance in some wheat cultivars and advanced lines to leaf Rust and Septoria Leaf Blotch in Khuzestan province p. 10.

Davari, M. Abrin Bana, M. Asghari Zakaria, R. and Arzanlo, M. 2012. Evaluation of resistance of wheat cultivars to Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates in Moghan at seedling stage in greenhouse conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 43: 379-389.

Desmazieres, J. B. H. J. 1842. Neuvieme notice sur quelques plants Cryptogames. Ann. Sci. Nat. II, 16: 91:118.

Eyal, Z. Scharen, A. L. Prescott, J. M. and van Ginkel, M. 1987. The septoria diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management.Mexico, D. F.: CIMMYT. 46 pp.

Eyal, Z. 1999. The Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum blotch diseases of wheat. European Journal of Plant Pathology,105:629-641.

Fones, H. Gurr, S. 2015. The impact of Septoria tritici blotch disease on wheat: An EU perspective. Fungal Genet Biol,79: 3–7.

Gilchrist, L. Gomez, B. Gonzalez, R. Fuentes, S. Mujeeb- Kazi, A. Pfeiffer, W. Rajaram, S. Rodriguez, R. Skovmand, B. van Ginkel, M. and Valezquez, C. 1999. Septoria tritici resistace sources and breeding progress at CIMMYT, 1970-99. pp. 134-139. In: Van Ginkel, M. McNab, A. and Krupinsky, J.(eds.), Septoria and Stagospora Diseases of Cereals. A Compilation of Global Research. CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., Mexico.

Goodwin, S. B. McDonald, B. A. and Kema, G. H. J. 2003. The Mycosphaerella sequencing initiative. pp.149-151. In: Kema, G. H. J. van Ginkel, M. Harrabi, M.(eds.). Global Insights into the Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals, Tunis, Tunisia.

Halama P. 1996. The occurrence of Mycosphaerella graminicola, teleomorph of Septoria tritici in France. Plant Pathology, 45: 135–138.

Haghdel, M. and Banihashemi, Z. 2003. Reaction of wheat cultivars to isolates of Septoria tritici under greenhouse and controlled chamber conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 39:175-187 (In Persian).

Jorge, O. G. Jorge, D. and Luis, E. A. C. 2004. Aggressiveness and physiological specialization of Septoria tritici Rob. isolates. Sci. Agric. Piracicaba, Braz, 61: 414-421.

Khelghatibana, F. and Dadrezaie, S. T. 2004. Evaluation of synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for resistance to Septoria tritici in field. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Tabriz p. 12.

Knott, E. A. and Mundt, C. C. 1989. Latent period and infection efficiency of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici populations isolated from different wheat cultivars. Phytopathology, 81: 435-439.

Komijani, S. Razavi, M. Aminian, H. and Etebarian, H. R. 2008. Study on mating types of Mycosphaerella graminicola causative agent of septoria leaf blotch of wheat using molecular markers and its importance in Iran. Journal of Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 2:1-14.

Kole, C. and Timothy, C. 2008. Compendium of transgenic crop plants. Transgenic cereals and forage grasses. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN. 978-1405-169240.

Kia, Sh. Torabi, M. and Nazari, K. 2006. Evaluation of resistance to Septoria Leaf Blotch in wheat lines and cultivars. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj p. 3.

Kia, S. and Torabi, M. 2008. Effects of infection with septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici Rob. Ex. Desm.) at different growth stages on yield and yield components ofwheat cultivars in Gorgan. Seed and Plant, 24:237-250 (in Persian).

Kia, Sh. Rahnama, K. Soltanloo, H. Babaeizad, V. Aghajani, M.A. 2017a. Effectiveness of Resistance Genes to Septoria tritici Blotch (Stb) in Differential Cultivares of Wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici Isolates. Journal of Applied Rsearches in Plant Protection, 6:109-123.

Kia, Sh. Rahnama, K. Soltanloo, H. Babaeizad, V. Aghajani, M. A. 2017b. Identification of Resistance Sources to Septoria tritici Blotch with Causal Agent Zymoseptoria tritici in Bread Wheat Genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 10:51-67.

McDonald, B.A. Mundt, C.C. 2016. How knowledge of pathogen population biology informs management of Septoria tritici blotch. Phytopathology,106: 948–955.

Mehrabi, R. 2002. Evaluation of tetraploid wheat accessions of Triticum turgidum to septoria leaf blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) disease. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant ProtectionCongress, Kermanshah p. 26.

Minasian, V. and Alizadeh, A. 1989. Imprefect Fungi. Shahid Chamran University press, p.457 (in Persian).

Mohammad Doust Chamanabad, H. Nouri Ghanbalati, G. Asghari, A. and Nouri Ghanbalati, A. L. 2010. Wheat from Production to Consumption. Jihad-e- Daneshgahi of Ardebil Publications, Ardebil, Iran (in Persian).

Mohammad beygi, A. Roohparvar, R. and Torabi, M. 2014. Resistance sources in selected wheat genotypes to septoria leaf blotch disease. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 3: 605-621.

Mohammad beygi, A. Roohparvar, R. and Torabi, M. 2016. Genetic variation of virulence in Iranian isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola using wheat differential cultivars. Journal of Applied Entomology and phytopathology, 84: 43-54.

Murray, M. and Thompson, W.F. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 8: 4321-4325.

Naroee, P. Mozafari, J. Zamanizade, H. and Khelghatibana, F. 2006. Evaluation of Iranian tetraploid wheat landraces for resistance to septoria leaf blotch disease. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj p. 2.

O’Driscoll, A. Kildea, S. Doohan, F. Spink, J. and Mullins, E. 2014. The wheat–Septoria conflict: a new front opening up? Trends Plant Sci,19: 602–610.

Palmer, C. L. and Skinner, W. 2002. Mycosphaerella graminicola: latent infection, crop devastation and genomics. Molecular Plant Pathology, 3: 63-70.

Quaedvlieg, W. Kema, G. H. J. Groenewald, J. Z. Verkley, G. J. M. Seifbarghi, S. Razavi, M. Mirzadi Gohari, A. Mehrabi, R. and Crous, P. W. 2011. Zymoseptoria gen. nov.: a new genus to accommodate Septoria-like species occurring on graminicolous hosts. Persoonia, 26: 57–69.

Sanchez-Vallet, A. McDonald, M. C. Solomon, P. S. McDonald, B. A. 2015. Is Zymoseptoria tritici a hemibiotroph? Fungal Genet Biol,79: 29–32.

Sanderson, F. R. 1972. A Mycosphaerlla species as the ascogenous state of Septoria tritici Rob. Ex. Desm. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 10: 707-709.

Sanderson, F. R. 1976. Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) Sanderson comb. nov., the ascogenous state of Septoria tritici Rob. apud Desm. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 14: 359-60.

Sharifi Tehrani, A. Farzaneh, M. Afshari, F. Behbodi, K. Kelenfev Jer, A. Pechi Tar, M. Keel, C. Mascher, F. 2011. Investigation of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 mcherry on root colonization of wheat cultivars and induction resistance against brown wheat rust. Iranian Journal of  Plant Protection Science, 42: 85-94.

Shearer, B. L. and Wilcoxson, R. D. 1978. Variation in the size of macropycnidiospores and pycnidia of Septoria tritici on wheat. Botany, 56: 742-746.

Simon, M.R. Cordo, C.A. Castillo, N. S. Struik, P.C. and Borner, A. 2012. Population structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola and location of genes for resistance to the pathogen: recent advances in Argentina. International Journal of A gronomy, 2012: 1-7.

Sivanesan, A. 1990. Mycosphaerella graminicola. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, 986: 1-2.

Suffert, F. Sache, I. Lannou, C. 2011. Early stages of septoria tritici blotch epidemics of winter wheat: build-up, overseasoning, and release of primary inoculum. Plant Pathol,60: 166–177.

Torabi, M. 1979. Causal organism of wheat septoriose and its distribution in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16: 7-16 (in Persian).

Torabi, M. Pouralibaba, H. R. Dehghan, M. A. and Dadrezai, S. T. 2002. Evaluation of resistance of advanced dryland wheat lines at seedling and adult stages against septoria leaf blotch in different parts of Iran. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Kermanshah p. 6.

Van Ginkel, M. and Ragaram, S. 1993. Breeding for durable resistance in wheat an international perspective. In Jacobs Th. Parlevliet J.E. (Eds.). Durability in disease resistance. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Durdrecht Boston London, PP 259-272.

Verkley, G. J. M. Quaedvlieg, W. Shin H.-D. and Crous, P.W. 2013. A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria. Studies in Mycology, 75: 213–305.

Wenham, H. T. 1959. Studies on septaria leaf blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Septoria tritici  Desm., New Zealand .Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 208-213.

 

Zhang, H. Haley, S. D., and Jin, Y. 2001. Inheritance of septoria tritici blotch resistance in winter wheat. Crop Science, 41: 323-326.

 

Brading, P. A. Verstappen E. C. P. Kema, G. H. J. and Brown, J. K. M. 2002. A gene-for-gene relationship between wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch pathogen. Phytopathology,92: 439-445.

Brown, J. K. M. Chartrain, L. Lasserre­Zuber, P. and Saintenac, C. 2015. Genetics of resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and applications to wheat breeding. Fungal Genet Biol 79: 33–41.

Chartrain, L. Brading, P. A. Makepeace, J. C. and Brown, J. K. M, 2004. Sources of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch and implications for wheat breeding. Plant Pathology, 53: 454 – 460.

Croll, D. Lendenmann, M. H. Stewart, E. and McDonald, B. A. 2015. The impact of recombination hotspots on genome evolution of a fungal plant pathogen. Genetics, 201: 1213–1228.

Dadrezaie, S. T. and Eslahi, R. 2004. Evaluation of resistance in some wheat cultivars and advanced lines to leaf Rust and Septoria Leaf Blotch in Khuzestan province p. 10.

Davari, M. Abrin Bana, M. Asghari Zakaria, R. and Arzanlo, M. 2012. Evaluation of resistance of wheat cultivars to Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates in Moghan at seedling stage in greenhouse conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 43: 379-389.

Desmazieres, J. B. H. J. 1842. Neuvieme notice sur quelques plants Cryptogames. Ann. Sci. Nat. II, 16: 91:118.

Eyal, Z. Scharen, A. L. Prescott, J. M. and van Ginkel, M. 1987. The septoria diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management.Mexico, D. F.: CIMMYT. 46 pp.

Eyal, Z. 1999. The Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum blotch diseases of wheat. European Journal of Plant Pathology,105:629-641.

Fones, H. Gurr, S. 2015. The impact of Septoria tritici blotch disease on wheat: An EU perspective. Fungal Genet Biol,79: 3–7.

Gilchrist, L. Gomez, B. Gonzalez, R. Fuentes, S. Mujeeb- Kazi, A. Pfeiffer, W. Rajaram, S. Rodriguez, R. Skovmand, B. van Ginkel, M. and Valezquez, C. 1999. Septoria tritici resistace sources and breeding progress at CIMMYT, 1970-99. pp. 134-139. In: Van Ginkel, M. McNab, A. and Krupinsky, J.(eds.), Septoria and Stagospora Diseases of Cereals. A Compilation of Global Research. CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., Mexico.

Goodwin, S. B. McDonald, B. A. and Kema, G. H. J. 2003. The Mycosphaerella sequencing initiative. pp.149-151. In: Kema, G. H. J. van Ginkel, M. Harrabi, M.(eds.). Global Insights into the Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals, Tunis, Tunisia.

Halama P. 1996. The occurrence of Mycosphaerella graminicola, teleomorph of Septoria tritici in France. Plant Pathology, 45: 135–138.

Haghdel, M. and Banihashemi, Z. 2003. Reaction of wheat cultivars to isolates of Septoria tritici under greenhouse and controlled chamber conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 39:175-187 (In Persian).

Jorge, O. G. Jorge, D. and Luis, E. A. C. 2004. Aggressiveness and physiological specialization of Septoria tritici Rob. isolates. Sci. Agric. Piracicaba, Braz, 61: 414-421.

Khelghatibana, F. and Dadrezaie, S. T. 2004. Evaluation of synthetic hexaploid wheat lines for resistance to Septoria tritici in field. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Tabriz p. 12.

Knott, E. A. and Mundt, C. C. 1989. Latent period and infection efficiency of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici populations isolated from different wheat cultivars. Phytopathology, 81: 435-439.

Komijani, S. Razavi, M. Aminian, H. and Etebarian, H. R. 2008. Study on mating types of Mycosphaerella graminicola causative agent of septoria leaf blotch of wheat using molecular markers and its importance in Iran. Journal of Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 2:1-14.

Kole, C. and Timothy, C. 2008. Compendium of transgenic crop plants. Transgenic cereals and forage grasses. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN. 978-1405-169240.

Kia, Sh. Torabi, M. and Nazari, K. 2006. Evaluation of resistance to Septoria Leaf Blotch in wheat lines and cultivars. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj p. 3.

Kia, S. and Torabi, M. 2008. Effects of infection with septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici Rob. Ex. Desm.) at different growth stages on yield and yield components ofwheat cultivars in Gorgan. Seed and Plant, 24:237-250 (in Persian).

Kia, Sh. Rahnama, K. Soltanloo, H. Babaeizad, V. Aghajani, M.A. 2017a. Effectiveness of Resistance Genes to Septoria tritici Blotch (Stb) in Differential Cultivares of Wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici Isolates. Journal of Applied Rsearches in Plant Protection, 6:109-123.

Kia, Sh. Rahnama, K. Soltanloo, H. Babaeizad, V. Aghajani, M. A. 2017b. Identification of Resistance Sources to Septoria tritici Blotch with Causal Agent Zymoseptoria tritici in Bread Wheat Genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 10:51-67.

McDonald, B.A. Mundt, C.C. 2016. How knowledge of pathogen population biology informs management of Septoria tritici blotch. Phytopathology,106: 948–955.

Mehrabi, R. 2002. Evaluation of tetraploid wheat accessions of Triticum turgidum to septoria leaf blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) disease. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant ProtectionCongress, Kermanshah p. 26.

Minasian, V. and Alizadeh, A. 1989. Imprefect Fungi. Shahid Chamran University press, p.457 (in Persian).

Mohammad Doust Chamanabad, H. Nouri Ghanbalati, G. Asghari, A. and Nouri Ghanbalati, A. L. 2010. Wheat from Production to Consumption. Jihad-e- Daneshgahi of Ardebil Publications, Ardebil, Iran (in Persian).

Mohammad beygi, A. Roohparvar, R. and Torabi, M. 2014. Resistance sources in selected wheat genotypes to septoria leaf blotch disease. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 3: 605-621.

Mohammad beygi, A. Roohparvar, R. and Torabi, M. 2016. Genetic variation of virulence in Iranian isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola using wheat differential cultivars. Journal of Applied Entomology and phytopathology, 84: 43-54.

Murray, M. and Thompson, W.F. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 8: 4321-4325.

Naroee, P. Mozafari, J. Zamanizade, H. and Khelghatibana, F. 2006. Evaluation of Iranian tetraploid wheat landraces for resistance to septoria leaf blotch disease. Proceedings of the 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj p. 2.

O’Driscoll, A. Kildea, S. Doohan, F. Spink, J. and Mullins, E. 2014. The wheat–Septoria conflict: a new front opening up? Trends Plant Sci,19: 602–610.

Palmer, C. L. and Skinner, W. 2002. Mycosphaerella graminicola: latent infection, crop devastation and genomics. Molecular Plant Pathology, 3: 63-70.

Quaedvlieg, W. Kema, G. H. J. Groenewald, J. Z. Verkley, G. J. M. Seifbarghi, S. Razavi, M. Mirzadi Gohari, A. Mehrabi, R. and Crous, P. W. 2011. Zymoseptoria gen. nov.: a new genus to accommodate Septoria-like species occurring on graminicolous hosts. Persoonia, 26: 57–69.

Sanchez-Vallet, A. McDonald, M. C. Solomon, P. S. McDonald, B. A. 2015. Is Zymoseptoria tritici a hemibiotroph? Fungal Genet Biol,79: 29–32.

Sanderson, F. R. 1972. A Mycosphaerlla species as the ascogenous state of Septoria tritici Rob. Ex. Desm. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 10: 707-709.

Sanderson, F. R. 1976. Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) Sanderson comb. nov., the ascogenous state of Septoria tritici Rob. apud Desm. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 14: 359-60.

Sharifi Tehrani, A. Farzaneh, M. Afshari, F. Behbodi, K. Kelenfev Jer, A. Pechi Tar, M. Keel, C. Mascher, F. 2011. Investigation of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 mcherry on root colonization of wheat cultivars and induction resistance against brown wheat rust. Iranian Journal of  Plant Protection Science, 42: 85-94.

Shearer, B. L. and Wilcoxson, R. D. 1978. Variation in the size of macropycnidiospores and pycnidia of Septoria tritici on wheat. Botany, 56: 742-746.

Simon, M.R. Cordo, C.A. Castillo, N. S. Struik, P.C. and Borner, A. 2012. Population structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola and location of genes for resistance to the pathogen: recent advances in Argentina. International Journal of A gronomy, 2012: 1-7.

Sivanesan, A. 1990. Mycosphaerella graminicola. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, 986: 1-2.

Suffert, F. Sache, I. Lannou, C. 2011. Early stages of septoria tritici blotch epidemics of winter wheat: build-up, overseasoning, and release of primary inoculum. Plant Pathol,60: 166–177.

Torabi, M. 1979. Causal organism of wheat septoriose and its distribution in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16: 7-16 (in Persian).

Torabi, M. Pouralibaba, H. R. Dehghan, M. A. and Dadrezai, S. T. 2002. Evaluation of resistance of advanced dryland wheat lines at seedling and adult stages against septoria leaf blotch in different parts of Iran. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Kermanshah p. 6.

Van Ginkel, M. and Ragaram, S. 1993. Breeding for durable resistance in wheat an international perspective. In Jacobs Th. Parlevliet J.E. (Eds.). Durability in disease resistance. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Durdrecht Boston London, PP 259-272.

Verkley, G. J. M. Quaedvlieg, W. Shin H.-D. and Crous, P.W. 2013. A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria. Studies in Mycology, 75: 213–305.

Wenham, H. T. 1959. Studies on septaria leaf blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Septoria tritici  Desm., New Zealand .Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 208-213.

Zhang, H. Haley, S. D., and Jin, Y. 2001. Inheritance of septoria tritici blotch resistance in winter wheat. Crop Science, 41: 323-326.