تهیه فرمولاسیون امولسیون شونده از عصاره گیاه چریش (Azadirachta indica) و بررسی اثر حشره کشی آن بر روی شته سبز هلو Myzus persicae

نوع مقاله: مدیریت آفات و بیماری‌های گیاهی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 مؤسسة تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان هرمزگان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، هرمزگان، ایران

چکیده

آزادیراکتین ماده فعال به لحاظ خواص آفتکشی است که از عصاره و روغن دانه درخت چریش (Azadirachta indica) استخراج می‌شود. بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد این ترکیب با نحوه عمل متفاوت می‌تواند روی بسیاری از آفات کشاورزی از جمله حشرات، کنه‌ها، نماتدها و قارچ‌های بیماریزای گیاهی موثر باشد. در این تحقیق سعی شده است نسبت به تهیه یک فرمولاسیون موثر از عصاره چریش اقدام شود. بدین منظور عصاره چریش با استفاده از حلال استون از دانه‌ای چریش استخراج شد و با دستگاه NMR وجود مولکول آزادیراختین در آن تائید شد. عصاره خالص آزادیراختین برای تهیه فرمولاسیون مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. بدین منظور مقدار 5 گرم روغن طبیعی آفتابگردان با 130 میلی‌گرم عصاره آزادیراختین خالص سازی شده به همراه مقادیر مختلف (معادل 5/0، 1، 2، 3 و 5 گرم) امولسیون کننده Tween 85 در هر لوله آزمایش 50 میلی لیتری با یکدیگر مخلوط شد. بررسی کیفیت امولسیون‌های ساخته شده بر اساس میزان کرمینگ و دو فاز شدن بر اساس روش FAO انجام شد و نهایتا فرمولاسیون EC 1.28% تهیه شد. بررسی کارائی غلظت‌های مختلف فرمولاسیون تهیه شده روی شته سبز هلو Myzus persicae در مقایسه با پیریمیکارب، دیازینون و دلتامترین در 14 روز بعد از سمپاشی نشان داد فرمولاسیون EC 1.28% چریش با دز 3 در هزار با میانگین کنترل (5/2±4/71 ) درصد با پیریمیکارب( 7/3±5/74) و دیازینون (6/2±9/76) در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفت. لذا این فرمولاسیون میتواند به عنوان یک جایگزین و یا در تناوب با سایر حشره‌کش‌ها مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Preparation of Emulsifiable Concentrat formulation of Neem seed extract and investigating its efficacy against green peach Aphid Myzus persicae

نویسندگان [English]

  • B. HEIDARI ALIZADEH 1
  • A. HEIDARI 2
  • S. S. MODARES NAJAFABADI 3
چکیده [English]

Azadirachtin is an active ingredient present in the Neem seed extract and oil with pesticidal properties. Studies show that this compound with a different mode of action can be effective on many agricultural pests like insects, mites, nematodes and pathological fungi. Therefore a lot of efforts have been made to develop and prepare an effective commercial formulation of this product. In this study, development of an effective formulation of Neem extract was undertaken. Therefore, the Neem extract was obtained from Neem seed by acetone and the presence of Azadirachtin was confirmed by proton NMR method. The purified Neem extract was used to prepare the EC formulation. Hence 5 g of sunflower oil with 130 mg of the purified Azadirachtin extract along with different amounts of Tween 85 as emulsifier (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 gram) were mixed in 50 ml test-tubes. Creaming and phase separation of the prepared emulsion were studied as the quality control factors according to the FAO standards and finally 1.28% EC formulation of Neem seed extract was obtained. Evaluation of the efficacy of different concentrations of this formulation compared with pirimicarb, diazinon and deltametrin on green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, after 14 days showed that the Neem formulation (EC 1.28%) with the dose of 3 ml/l, pirimicarb and diazinon showed 71.4±2.5, 74.5±3.7 and 76.9±2.6 percent mortality respectively, were placed in the same group statistically. Therefore this formulation can be used as an alternative or in rotation with other insecticides.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azadirachtin
  • Formulation
  • emulsifiable concentrate
  • peach aphid
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