تلفیق نماتدهای بیماری زای حشرات و حشره کش های شیمیایی در کنترل تریپس پیاز Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) در شرایط آزمایشگاه (مقاله‌ی انگلیسی)

نوع مقاله: حشره شناسی کشاورزی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 استادیار حشره‌شناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 دانشیار حشره‌شناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

تلفیق نماتدهای بیماری‌زای حشرات و دیگر عوامل کنترلی با ایجاد اثرات افزایشی یا سینرژیستی در مرگ و میر آفت، برای دستیابی به کنترل مطلوب‌تر یک آفت استفاده شده است. در این مطالعه پتانسیل نماتدهای بیماری‌زای حشرات (Steinernema carpocapsae و Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) به تنهایی، حشره‌کش‌های شیمیایی (ایمیداکلوپرید، دلتامترین و آبامکتین) به تنهایی و تلفیق نماتدهاو حشره‌کش‌ها روی تریپس پیاز Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. در آزمایش‌های اولیه، اثر غلظت‌های مختلف حشره‌کش‌ها و نماتدها روی لارو تریپس آزمایش و مقادیر LC10 و LC30 حشره‌کش‌ها اندازه‌گیری گردید. سپس با انجام آزمایش‌های پیش‌تیمار، لارو تریپس ابتدا در معرض LC30 آبامکتین (16/5 میلی‌گرم/لیتر)، LC10 ایمیداکلوپرید (16/50 میلی‌گرم/لیتر) یا LC10 دلتامترین (28/10 میلی‌گرم/لیتر) قرار گرفته و سپس با دو غلظت 400 یا 1000 نماتد جوان بیماری‌زا/سانتی‌مترمربع تیمار شد. درصد مرگ و میر در بازه های زمانی مختلف (24، 48 و 72 ساعت پس از استفاده نماتد) ثبت شد. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از نماتدها به تنهایی کمتر از 30% مرگ و میر تریپس را دنبال داشته است. تلفیق H. bacteriophora و همه حشره‌کش‌ها بطور افزایشی بر مرگ و میر تریپس اثر داشت و تیمار ایمیداکلوپراید اثر سوئی بر عملکرد H. bacteriophora در غلظت 1000 جوان بیماری‌زا/سانتی‌مترمربع نشان داد. اثرات افزایشی و سینرژیستی در تلفیق حشره‌کش‌ها با S. carpocapsae مشاهده شد. این تیمارها در مقایسه با نماتد تنها مرگ و میر بالاتری ایجاد کردند و اثرات سینرژیستی در تلفیق S. carpocapsae غلظت 400 جوان بیماری‌زا/سانتی‌مترمربع با ایمیداکلوپرید و دلتامترین و همچنین غلظت 1000 جوان بیماری-زا/سانتی‌مترمربع با آبامکتین مشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Combination of entomopathogenic nematodes and chemical insecticides for controlling the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the laboratory condition (Article in English)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. KASHKOULI 1
  • N. POORJAVAD 2
  • J. KHAJEHALI 3
چکیده [English]

Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) combinations with other control agents are applied to obtain more desirable control of a pest by additive or synergistic effects on the pest mortality. In this study, the potential of EPNs (Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) alone, chemical insecticides (imidacloprid, deltamethrin, and abamectin) alone, and EPN-insecticide combinations, against the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was investigated. In the first experiments, the effects of different concentrations of insecticides and EPNs on the thrips larvae were tested and the LC10 and LC30 values of insecticides were calculated. Then using a pre-treatment bioassay, the thrips larvae were treated with the EPNs at two concentrations, 400 or 1000 infective juveniles (IJs) per cm2, after they had been exposed to LC30 of abamectin (5.16 mg per litre (l), LC10 of imidacloprid (50.16 mg/l), or LC10 of deltamethrin (10.28 mg/l). Mortality percentages were recorded at different time intervals, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the EPNs utilization. Results showed that the sole application of EPNs caused less than 30% thrips mortality. The combination of H. bacteriophora and all insecticides interacted additively on the thrips mortality whereas imidacloprid treatment showed adverse effects on the efficacy of H. bacteriophora at 1000 IJs/cm2. Additive and synergistic interactions resulted in combining insecticides with S. carpocapsae. These combinations gave mostly higher thrips mortality than with EPN alone and synergistic interactions were observed in S. carpocapsae application at 400 IJs/cm2 with imidacloprid and deltamethrin and also at 1000 IJs/cm2 with abamectin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • integrated pest management (IPM)
  • Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
  • Steinernema carpocapsae
  • Imidacloprid
  • Abamectin
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